Smar Jbeil – Fortress (Citadel)

Smar Jbeil Citadel, Smar Jbeil, Lebanon

Other Details

قلعة سمار جبيل

Smar Jbayl

Batroun

North

على تلة مشرفة في البلدة ترتفع قلعة عسكرية حصينة. وتعلو القلعة حوالى 500 متر عن سطح البحر ويعود تاريخ بنائها الى ملوك جبيل الفينيقيين الذين اشتهروا بالقصور والقلاع المنحوتة بالصخر، ثم سكنها ملك بابل “بختنصر”. وثمّة تماثيل رومانيّة بأوشحتها المعروفة تدلّ على أنّ الرومان احتلوها وبنوا فيها هيكلًا بأعمدة ضخمة بقاياها مشتتة في نواح عدة من سمار جبيل، وفي الحائط الجنوبي لكنيستها الأثرية. وقد بنى فيها الرومان أيضًا مسرحًا يدعى الراميّة، وهو مفروش بالإسمنت القديم، كما بنوا معاصر موجودة في الجنوب الغربي من القلعة. في القلعة خندق منحوت في الصخر يُملأ بالمياه لمنع دخول الغزاة، وبرج مراقبة وطاقات لفوانيس.في التقليد القديم يُروى ان مار لوجيوس وهو شفيع العيون والمعروف لدى السريان بمار نوهرا، قصد بلاد البترون للتبشير، ونال اكليل الشهادة بقطع الرأس ورميه في أحد آبار هذه القلعة بالذات. هذا البئر مازال مقصودًا الى اليوم للتبرك بمائه العجائبي الشافي لأمراض العيون.كذلك يذكر تقليد آخر ان مار يوحنا مارون قصد القلعـة، يوم تعيينه أسقـفًا على البترون سنة 676، واختارهـا حصـناً له بعـد خراب دير مـار مارون في سوريا. ولمّا أصبـح بطريركـًا سنة 685 نُقل مقـرّه الى كفرحي وبنى فيها ديرًا.بعد سقوط الامبراطورية البيزنطية، تعاقب على القلعة العرب والصليبيون، وأتى بعدهم المماليك ثم العثمانيون. الحكام اللبنانيون قديماً كان لهم نصيب في هذه القلعة، حيث سكنها الشيخ أبو نادر الخازن الذي ولّاه الأمير فخر الدين على مقدّمي البلاد.Built by the phonecian kings of Byblos on a hill overlooking the coastline, the castle was used by the Babylonian king Baktensar. Later on in the classical period, the romans built a temple inside of it with a large atrium, nowadays the columns of the atrium are scatered all around the village and in the walls of the historical church. The romans also built a theater, and a winery in the western side of the castle. A watch tower and a protective water trench were added in the late classical period for protection.According to tradition St Logius the patron saint of eye illness, also known as Nohra in the Syriac world, preached in the lands of Batroun. He was sentenced to death during the Diocletian persecution by beheading in the castle patio. His head was thrown in a well nearby, still visited for its miraculous eye healing waters.According to another tradition, the first Maronite patriarch St John Maroun, and when he became bishop of Batroun in 676, resided in the castle after the devastation of the monastery of St Maroun on the Orontes in Syria. After he was elected patriarch in 685 he moved again to Kfarhay where he built a new monastery.After the fall of the Byzantine empire the castle was occupied by the Arabs, the Crusarders, the Mamluks and the Ottomans. During the reign of prine Fakhredyn the Second, the first Christian regent of the land Aby Nader Al khazin took hold of the castle and made it his headquarter.

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